Swami Satyananda Saraswati
Satsangs by Paramahamsa Satyananda on the very advanced Sadhana of
Laya Yoga via Pranayama
Extracts from the following texts available from Satyananda Yoga Centres worldwide
Yoga from Shore to Shore
Teachings of Swami Satyananda -Volume 3
Yoga from Shore to Shore – (1968 Lisbon)
This is The FIRST TIME I am speaking publicly on Laya yoga, but I think it is not the first time you are hearing about Laya yoga and its various techniques, and what you will hear from me this evening may be a bit of disillusionment regarding your previous ideas about Laya.
The Sanskrit word ‘Laya’ means dissolution, or melting into something. In what way does Laya differ from samadhi? Why is Laya different from super consciousness? After all, all yogas should lead to a higher state where dissolution of lower consciousness takes place. This being so, every yoga is Laya yoga. Whether your practice is pranayama or Kriya Yoga or meditation on God or your guru, when your individual consciousness merges into super consciousness, it is in a state of dissolution or Laya.
But although all this is true, Laya Yoga is still a Yoga by itself, and we have to understand this now.
Super consciousness is the ultimate aim for each and every individual, for super consciousness is the ultimate state of our continuing process of evolution. In the super conscious state one does not become unconscious or lose individual consciousness, but one remains completely aware of all happenings both inside and outside. One has to travel with great alertness along the path that leads to super consciousness so that the individual consciousness is neither suspended nor dissolved, whereas in the practice of Laya individual consciousness is made to lose its contact with both the internal and the external.
The principles of prakriti or the element of nature, formed by the three gunas sattva, rajas and tamas, bring about disturbances or movements in the pattern of human consciousness. There are two ways of combating this: either you transcend the gunas, and transcend them so completely that you sit down at the level of super consciousness, or instead of transcending them you can withdraw from them through Laya and for some time you will be in meditation.
In Laya Yoga the physical brain centres, the nervous system and also the centres of consciousness within the body are brought to a state of unconsciousness consciously, and you have complete and voluntary control over this process of dissolution of consciousness, or dissolution of the ‘I’. It is similar to the ability to close your eyes and open and close and open them, and in the same manner the Laya Yogi is able to manifest his consciousness, pass into complete unconsciousness and a complete state of dissolution of consciousness.
So there are two types of Yoga: one where nature or the gunas are transcended, and another where nature, prakriti or the three gunas in the patterns of consciousness or in the general body of consciousness, are dissolved. In a super conscious state you are aware of awareness, but in Laya you are aware of unawareness.
Super consciousness is really difficult to achieve and it depends on your personal spiritual evolution, but this state can be forced on you. Through the practices of Laya you can do this and bring about the desired changes in your physical, mental and spiritual condition. Laya is, of course, a very short-cut method, but it has to be learned with a teacher so you don’t make mistakes. It is not at all difficult for us to do, but we must know Pranayamas and some Kriyas.
Those who want to practice Laya yoga should also do some Hatha Yoga first. This is very important; I do not mean asanas and pranayamas. Because Hatha never means those. Classically, Hatha Yoga has nothing to do with asanas and pranayamas, but it consists of a series of cleansing techniques to bring about a balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Asanas and pranayamas form a part of Tantra. Unfortunately, the modern yoga scholar and yoga scholars in the last century gave rise to this mistake because they thought it better if they said they were practicing yoga. I am sure that no yoga teacher in France has the courage to say: “I am teaching Tantra;” instead he says, “I am teaching yoga.” But let me emphasize again, he is not teaching yoga but is teaching only Tantra, and asanas and pranayama form a most central part of the Tantric system.
Now Hatha Yoga consists of six systems: neti. basti, kapalbhati, dhauti, trataka and nauli.
It is very important that the practitioner of Laya yoga should practice neti. Neti is not just a cleaning of the nose, but it also acts to irrigate and cool the optical system, the frontal brain, the entire glottis and the whole mouth. By the practice of Neti, whether you use water, a rubber catheter, milk, butter or clarified butter, you awaken a certain gland situated in the interior of your nose behind the mucous membrane.
The next hatha practice you should do is dhauti. This includes kunjal where you drink water and vomit it out, and shankha prakshalana where you drink about 16 glasses of salt water, perform a series of exercises and bring all your waste out through the anus. You clean your system so completely that finally you pass only the water you take in.
Then there is a Kriya you should practice called Kapalbhati. In Kapalbhati 100 breaths should be done at one stretch. When you have completed the hundred rounds you should exhale completely, retaining the breath out, and then practice moola bandha, uddiyana bandha and jalandhara bandha. Then do another 100 rounds, Finally concentrate on chidakasha, and the inner space, which you see on the inner wall of your forehead. Here, in the west, kapalbhati is not practiced exactly according to the system we use in Laya yoga, and only the other day I saw someone practising kapalbhati with very hard exhalations. This is not the right way at all, though it may be written, in yoga books like that, for books are subject to different interpretations and misunderstanding. Practising 100 rounds of kapalbhati is extremely simple provided you know how to do it correctly. I think everyone does it every morning unconsciously when they sniff to clean their nose. This is kapalbhati.
If you practice kapalbhati you will discover that after 100 rounds practiced 36 times, the mind merges. But practice kapalbhati either in siddhasana or padmasana. Of course you can remember God on an easy chair also, I do agree, but in kapalbhati you must have absolute control over the abdominal system.
When you are practising kapalbhati the body should not move, and if you are doing kapalbhati 100 rounds 36 times, your body should be like a statue. The kapalbhati breath must proceed very gently. You should do it gently for one hundred rounds and if you do it now you may achieve the first stage of laya here, in our Divine Life Society. But it is better, if you want to try it, to prepare for my next visit in August, and your preparations should start one month before.
There is another misunderstanding I should like to clear up. People think that moola bandha is the control or the contraction of the anus, but it isn’t and this mistake is even made in India. The word moolabandha actually means contraction of the perineum and not contraction of the anus. The complete name of moolabandha is mooladhara bandha The mooladhara is a chakra or psychic centre, and bandha means control. Thus contraction of the mooladhara chakra is abbreviated to moola bandha. Before you practice kapalbhati you. should master mooladhara bandha correctly. Some yoga books in European languages say the practice of ashwini mudra, contraction and expansion of the anal sphincter, will automatically include moolabandha. But ashwini mudra and moola bandha are different methods and not the same. Ashwini mudra is the contraction of the anus, that is the sphincter muscle, whereas mooladhara bandha is control of the perineum in the male, and in the female of the lowest part of the uterus. You should practice mooladbara bandlia first: then go on to kapalbbati.
You must also know the proper method of ]alandhara bandha, because I have seen from some pictures in different yoga books that they practice jalandhara bandha like this, with the chin just touching the chest, but it should be pressed against the chest. I am telling you the correct techniques only with reference to laya yoga, and in your daily practice you may do what you like. Don’t practice jalandhara bandha while standing: only practice in two asanas, the lotus pose and siddhasana. In this way jalandhara bandba will bring about total control of the thyroid gland which is necessary for the practice of Iaya yoga.
Now I will discuss trataka, another method necessary for laya yoga. Trataka can be practiced on a candle flame, on a black dot or on a big or small crystal ball. Crystals are transparent or opaque and in India are known as shiva lingams. There is a definite process for practicing trataka; otherwsie it may bring about awakening of your powerful psychic being. Therefore even if you practice trataka only for curing eye trouble or for curing your insomnia, it should be done very correctly so you do not develop wrong psychic explosions. Some, when practicing trataka see hell, monsters, ghosts and such terrible things that they stop altogether. They suppose these manifestations to be actually real, but in fact they are just an expression of what is suppressed within. Therefore you should practice trataka according to the right system. In trataka, though your eyes are open you see nothing in front of you, and the perception of the object disappears in toto.
But the most important hatha yoga practice is Nauli. Nauli is intended to recharge and awaken the navel centre, solar plexus, or manipura chakra, vital in laya yoga.
When you have completed your practice of hatha yoga you are ready for laya yoga. You may know that the word hatha means ida and pingala, or the solar and lunar channels, the mental and vital energies and the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Only when there exists complete balance of ida and pingala or of the nervous systems in the physical body are you ready for laya yoga. Otherwise you will probably get nervous imbalance from your practice of laya yoga and a sort of schizophrenia.
Only practice of hatha yoga brings about the right balance, harmony and equilibrium in these two great nervous systems, and if you feel you can get along without hatha yoga and do not practice, the nervous imbalance of the sympathetic or the parasympathetic system will certainly manifest in Laya yoga and you can become an idiot or extremely violent. Once you have achieved a balance in your nervous system, the practice of Laya yoga involves a very important exercise that creates a state of total unconsciousness, voluntary unconsciousness.
For this you must practice vajroli and two pranayamas known as Murchha and Surya Bheda pranayama. Vajroli I shall not discuss in much detail and will devote only a few minutes to it. Sit in siddhasana or in the lotus pose and close your eyes. First concentrate on the lowest part of the abdomen. Now contract your body in this area and go on contracting slowly so that the sexual organs are drawn upwards and pulled in. Do this stage-by-stage, starting with the pelvic region and slowly working upwards. Then release it as gradually as you withdrew it. Again you repeat the process. Vajroli should be practiced while retaining the breath internally, in antar kumbhak, so you breathe in and retain the breath. But it is very important that jalandhara bandha or chin lock is performed at the same time, Continue practicing this mudra vajroli, as long as is practical for you or for as long as you have time.
After vajroli you should do murchha and surya bheda pranayamas. You should remain seated throughout the whole of this practice. Next in your Laya practice you should do a Kriya known as Naumukhi in the Tantric system. After naumukhi you do another Kriya, also part of the Tantric system, but I cannot tell it to you at this stage. When you have done these 2 kriyas for about ten minutes with eyes closed, you make a sound that must end with humming; it cannot be just the name of God. Chant Aum for instance and go on humming Aummm, Aummm; the in should be maintained continuously for half an hour or for as long as is possible.
It is while humming Aum that you lose your individual consciousness, and will be aware you have become unconscious, You will have complete knowledge of the whole fact of unconsciousness taking place, but you will be unaware you are humming Aum. To any spectator it will sound as if you are groaning gently and it will be a very mild Sound because your consciousness is now dissolving.
When you sleep at night in deep slumber, it is Laya yoga also, but in that slumber state of Laya, the brain and mind and consciousness are in a submerged condition. They are not stimulated, awake. However in actual Laya yoga, the brain and consciousness are awake at a very high level when unconsciousness takes place, and Laya really begins here.
The Laya state is no different from Kundalini yoga, as there are many methods that can be practiced and taught for the dissolution of individual consciousness at a very high level.
When we say that an ordinary man sleeps on a bed but the yogi sleeps in heaven, we mean that the ordinary man becomes unconscious at a very low level of consciousness, whereas a Laya yogi becomes unconscious at a very heightened and evolved level of his consciousness.
Two hours of practice in the morning are needed for Laya Yoga, and preparation takes a month. One should also allow a month for the actual learning of Laya Yoga Kriyas.
Then there are diet restrictions of all those foods that hinder the process of the human metabolism, and unless the metabolism is accelerated you cannot achieve Laya yoga at any cost. For this reason a Laya yogi abstains from milk, meat, chicken, fish and any other foods that stand in the way of this metabolism acceleration. Also drug habits have to be avoided; they may bring about a state of calmness and serenity, but they interfere with the process of Laya yoga.
In our scriptures on Tantrism, Laya yoga is talked about with great respect, but Laya yoga has one great disadvantage, and that is it takes you away from the self because it develops supernatural and extrasensory qualities in you. It may be due to the practice of kapalbhati, murchha pranayama or vajroli, but Laya definitely develops some of the ultrasonic or parapsychological brain centres, and siddhis are developed. All psychic powers, whether they are high or low in nature, divert the attention of human consciousness from the higher self, and siddhis constitute the greatest barrier. Therefore, Laya yoga should only be practiced with a guru and in his presence.
There are many minor instructions concerning Laya yoga, small details I shall not discuss.
But I will mention Laya yoga should not be practiced by an unmarried person, and if you are not married and you want to practice Laya yoga, you should first marry and then practice it. This is not a joke but is a very scientific truth that I am putting before you. You have to unburden the posterior pituitary from those congested progesterone and estrogen hormones and eliminate them. There are certain toxins in the system in the stomach, in the blood, in the heart and lungs, in the muscles and bones, in the nervous system and brain, and only when you have eliminated all these toxins can Laya yoga bring that serenity and calm and total and homogeneous dissolution. I teach Laya yoga but I never teach it to those ‘who are celibate.
There are many yogas such as bhakti yoga, kirtan yoga and japa yoga which I think all people can practice, but Laya yoga is only for married people. There are other facts about Laya yoga, which I hope to tell you about next time.
The Yoga of Pranayama
Teachings of Swami Satyananda -Volume 3
There are two paths of self-illumination;
the path of expansion and the path of total dissolution.
The first path includes many spiritual practices and is taught by most teachers of yoga.
The second path is Laya Yoga, the direct route, which is taught by very few.
You may have heard it said, ‘By God, I swear I die every night’. What is this death and this night. When the mind is withdrawn to the source, the mind and pranas hibernate, and the body remains as if dead. That is Laya yoga samadhi. The only difference between the final stage of Laya yoga and the death experience is that after death you do not come back into the same body, whereas after experiencing the Laya state you return to the same body and resume life as the same individual.
In order to be able to face that experience, the practices of hatha yoga are absolutely indispensable. Hatha yoga prepares the foundation of Laya.
When you enter the state of Laya the first thing that happens is that the individual consciousness is completely disintegrated. There is no awareness of I; no knowledge of time, space, objectivity or individuality. Even the breath stops in some cases. If one continues practising and experiencing this Laya state, the whole body undergoes a condition of rigor mortis. This could continue for half an hour, one hour or a whole night, during which the body is devoid of prana.
In the state of Laya, the mind reverts from the state of manifestation to the state of dissolution. During this period the mind returns to the causal state. Just as a small plant goes back to the seed, so the mind reverts to its original state, which is called moola prakriti. In this state there is no creation, activity, movement or vibration. It is a state of status quo where everything stands still. There is no evolution or devolution, no time and no space.
At this point the mind enters the unconscious body, according to modern psychology, or the anandamaya kosha, according to Vedanta. There the consciousness is refreshed and qualified with the unconscious self. The eight siddhis, expounded in the yoga of Patanjali, are also cultivated there, so that when the consciousness returns to the normal state, it is vested with spiritual power.
You can say that Laya is the state of disembodied samadhi, which is achieved without any interference with the mind. In Laya yoga, as in hatha yoga, there is no direct attempt to influence the mind. The mutual relationship between prana and mind is recognized and the mind is brought under control by first controlling the prana. For those with very restless minds, this system is far easier to progress through than other systems, such as raja yoga, which lay more stress on controlling the mind.
In the process of controlling the mind, it is possible to go on battling with yourself for more than one lifetime. Sometimes a split personality is created by the conflicts and struggles which arise during this process. So, for dynamic people with plenty of ambitions and desires, the path of hatha yoga is supreme. Here the emphasis is not on controlling the mind, but on controlling the prana. If the aspirant has correctly practised and purified the elements of the body, when kevala kumbhaka occurs the mind automatically drops.
The path of controlling the prana is a scientific approach to spiritual upliftment, which begins right from the earth, the elements in the body. Many teachers feel that hatha yoga is just physical exercises and that it is not spiritual, but in my opinion hatha yoga is a very scientific process. If you want to raise a building, you need a foundation as well as a roof and walls. In the same way, if you want to control the prana, you need the practices of hatha yoga to prepare a base for pranayama.
Pranayama, mudras and bandhas are the most direct ways of exploring the prana and launching the mind into the state of total dissolution. Perhaps you have seen the picture of Kali standing on the body of Shiva. Kali is the exploded prana shakti and Shiva is the individual consciousness. This symbolizes the point when the pranas wake up and the individual consciousness is completely dissolved.
The practices of Pranayama, Mudra and Bandha are indispensable in Laya Yoga and should be properly learned.
In order to perfect these three practices you have to become an Adept in Hatha Yoga.
If you are seated in siddhasana, padmasana or any other position, the body has to be able to remain totally immobile, because in the practice of pranayama the prana moves throughout the body at a terrific speed. You must assist the movement of prana at that time by maintaining total immobility.
The interior of the body must also be pure. For example, fermentation of mucus will interfere with the pranic activities. That is why the stomach, intestines, nose, mouth, and the whole body have to be properly cleaned.
This physical body is a combination and permutation of the five elements: Ether, Air, Fire, Water and Earth. If you do not purify these five elements in the body, they will interfere with the activities of prana. In order to purify these elements in the body, hatha yoga must be practised.
After purifying the body, the practices of pranayama are utilized as a basis for controlling the prana and dissolving the mind. These practices are regarded as the most powerful aid to Laya samadhi.
Before beginning pranayama, you must master siddhasana. Then practise Bhastrika through one nostril, the other nostril, and finally through both nostrils. While practising Bhastrika, your chest should remain absolutely quiet. Only the abdomen has to move in and out like a blacksmith’s bellows. There should be no other movement in the body. It should be like a statue while practising Bhastrika. Gradually the speed of respiration must increase. In the course of the practice, the frequency, rapidity, depth and velocity of Bhastrika become more and more incredible. But regardless of what velocity Bhastrika attains, the body must remain motionless like a statue. You can close your eyes during the practice. If you prefer to keep them open, fix them on some point. Open or closed, there should be total fixity throughout the practice. Continue with Bhastrika until the breath stops by itself. Then discontinue the practice.
There is another form of pranayama which is very similar to Bhastrika, and that is Kapalbhati. Here the processes are reversed. Whereas in Bhastrika the speed increases with further practice, in kapalbhati the speed becomes slower and slower. In the practice of Bhastrika you go slow in the beginning, but in kapalbhati you go fast. As you progress in Bhastrika, the rapidity increases and the breath gets shorter, whereas in kapalbhati, the speed is fast in the beginning but with practice it becomes slower and the breath gets longer.
The third practice is Nadi Shodhana pranayama a very scientific technique which includes inhalation, internal retention, exhalation, and external retention. When you are practising external retention, you must practise the three bandhas – jalandhara, uddiyana and moola bandha. When you are practising internal retention, only practise two Jalandhara and moola bandha.
The ratio between inhalation and exhalation should be 1:2. The ratio of internal retention is not to be fixed in the beginning; it has to be according to your capacity. But later on it should be fixed according to the following ratios. In the beginning you should maintain the ratio of 1:1:2:1 and gradually you should go to 1:2:2:2 and then to 1:4:2:2 and finally 1:6:4:4. You only need to practise 5 rounds, not more. One round means inhaling through the left nostril, retaining; exhaling through the right nostril, retaining; inhaling through the right nostril, retaining, exhaling through the left nostril, retaining.
Every day practise 5 rounds. In the beginning this may only take five minutes,
but as you progress, these rounds may take up to one hour.
Nature of the breath:
In the sadhana of Laya yoga, the nature of breathing in and out has to be exact and it is not sufficient to breathe in the usual way. The breath has to be very subtle. When the breath is gross, you can feel it at a distance of 2 to 36 fingers. The shorter the distance, the subtler the breath. You should breathe in such a way that the breath does not go beyond two fingers on exhalation. If you don’t know about subtle breathing, you will retain the breath and then exhale too forcefully. So keep this point in mind, and then you will be able to adjust the internal retention so that you don’t gasp the breath out.
The next important point is that the speed of inhalation and exhalation should be consistent and uniform. Sometimes when you are tired, you breathe in deeply and slowly and exhale quickly. When you are not tired, you may inhale more quickly and exhale slowly. This inconsistency in the breath creates uneven waves, which disturb the mind. Consistency is very important and must not be neglected by the practitioner of Laya yoga. This also applies to internal and external retention. Sometimes the breath is held for 10 seconds, 11 seconds, 20 seconds, or one minute. But once the ratio for retention has been fixed, the duration should remain consistent throughout the practice.
Besides consistency, there must be uniformity in the breath. Many people breathe in and out with a slight jerk. But the breath should be smooth and uniform without stopping or jerking. If you put a flow meter inside the nose, you would see that people never breathe in or out uniformly. After internal retention, this is particularly noticeable. During one exhalation, there may be up to ten different speeds until uniformity is established.
Precise Timing: – It is very difficult to measure the length of inhalation, exhalation and retention. Some people say two claps, one snap. But in Laya yoga this method of counting is a type of distraction, which interferes with the uniformity, and velocity of the breath. Mental counting is better, but it is distracting. Some people keep a watch in front of them, but this is also very distracting. The best way to measure the breath is by the breath. In India this is done with the aid of the 24 syllable Gayatri mantra. Every syllable of this mantra has timing and the emphasis, which is shown by certain marks on, above or below it. If you practise, chant, or think of the mantra, the timing of the breath will not vary even by a fraction of a second. Since this mantra has 24 syllables, it provides you with the proper base for the first inhalation.
The 24 syllables of Gayatri is one inhalation and two 24 syllable Gayatris is one exhalation. Therefore, the 24 syllable Gayatri is one unit of Pranayama. For several years now I have been thinking about what would be the best way of measuring prana in western countries where people do not know the Gayatri. But, frankly speaking, I have not come to any conclusions. For a while, I tried the mantra Om. But I found that sometimes 24 Om’s took half a minute, at other times 40 seconds, 15 seconds and so on. I know that the timing has an effect on the mind and prana. If we are able to practise 5 rounds of Nadi Shodhana with absolute precision in timing, then the Laya state of samadhi will come.
Death and resurrection- Besides Bhastrika, Kapalbhati and Nadi Shodhana there are other pranayamas used in Laya yoga, such Surya Bheda and Murchha. In Kriya Yoga there is a technique known as tadan Kriya. Thus there are many different practices for attaining that state known as individual death. In the ‘Gorakhsamhita’, ‘Hatha Yoga Pradipika’ and many other ancient yogic texts, it is clearly written how pranayama should be practised for Laya yoga and what symptoms will appear.
It has also been said in different books on yoga that when pranayama is practised for Laya yoga samadhi, different sounds emanate from the body. This practice of pranayama not only affects the mind, it affects the very frame of the body. It changes the structure, the skin, the smell of the body; the way of thinking and even the eyes become powerful. Pranayama not only has a tremendous effect on the physical and pranic bodies of man, but on the mental, psychic and causal bodies as well.
In these changing times, when many people no longer believe in religion, God, or transcendental things, Laya yoga is probably the most suitable and powerful method of transcendence. It is based on techniques, which are practical, scientific and indisputably effective.
Therefore, let those who are seeking for the higher spiritual experience look to Laya Yoga and prepare themselves by the practice of pranayama. It is good if we live by day and die by night. Then every morning the resurrection takes place. This is the fulfilment of the human incarnation.
Yoga from Shore to Shore
Teachings of Swami Satyananda- Volume 3
Bihar School of Yoga Ó
Kundalini does not belong to the physical body, though it has to be searched for there, nor in the mental body or even in the astral body. It is in the unconscious causal body, in that particular state of awareness where the concept of time, space and object is completely lost. The seat of the unconscious in man is in the perineum, known in yogic terminology as mooladhara. It is a gland, a muscle, it is a body in which all the unconscious powers and initiatives of man are hidden.
When a sufficiently prepared aspirant practises intense pranayama in a calm, cool and quiet environment, preferably at a high altitude, with a diet only sufficient to maintain life, the awakening of kundalini takes place like an explosion. In fact, the awakening is so rapid that kundalini ascends to sahasrara immediately.
Pranayama is not only a breathing exercise or a means to increase prana in the body; it is a powerful method of creating yogic fire to heat the kundalini and awaken it. However, if it is practised without sufficient preparation, this will not occur because the generated heat will not be directed to the proper centers. Therefore, jalandhara, uddiyana and moola bandhas are practised to lock the prana in and force it up to the frontal brain.
When pranayarna is practised correctly, the mind is automatically conquered. However, the effects of pranayama are not that simple to manage. It creates extra heat in the body, it awakens some of the centers in the brain and it can hinder the production of sperm and testosterone. Pranayama may also lower the temperature of the inner body and even bring down the rate of respiration and alter the brain waves.
Unless you have practised the shatkarmas first and purified body to a degree, when these changes take place, you may not be able to handle them.
There are two important ways of awakening kundalini— one is the direct method and the other is the indirect.
Pranayama is the direct method. The experiences it brings about are explosive and results are attained very quickly. Expansion is rapid and the mind attains quick metamorphosis.
However, this form of kundalini awakening is always accompanied by certain experiences, and for one who is not sufficiently prepared mentally, philosophically, physically and emotionally, these experiences can be terrifying. Therefore, although the path of pranayama is a jetset method, it is drastic and is considered to be a very difficult one that every body cannot manage.
Satyananda Swami Satyananda
Kundalini Tantra ©1984 p40
Bihar Schol of Yoga
Munger, Bihar, India